Canadian Association of University Teachers

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(Ottawa — 6 December 2018) — Canada’s National Day of Remembrance and Action on Violence against Women — is not only about remembering victims but is also a call to action.

On this day in 1989, 14 women at l'École Polytechnique de Montréal were murdered in an act of gender-based violence (GBV) that shocked our nation.

CAUT condemns all forms of violence and marks this day as a reminder that women and girls in Canada, and around the world, continue to face levels of violence that are disproportionate and unacceptable.

In Canada, spousal/family violence consistently remains the most common form of violence against women, with 7 in 10 people experiencing such violence being women and girls. Trans people and lesbian and bisexual women and women with disabilities report even higher rates of intimate partner violence.

The stark reality is that every six days in Canada a woman dies at the hands of her intimate partner.

The first federal strategy to prevent and address GBV was introduced in 2017, in an effort to prevent such violence, and also to support survivors and promote better legal responses. CAUT applauds the government’s strategy and the further injection of funds in Budget 2018 which will target additional problems including teen dating violence and cyberbullying.

While some progress is beginning to be measured against the strategy’s goals, it will take much more effort before significant reductions in GBV are realized.

CAUT calls for continued government investment to stamp out GBV, and reminds individuals and organizations to take strong stands against misogyny and sexism which fuel such hate-filled acts. It is only once a true culture of respect is fostered in homes and workplaces that women and girls will no longer have to face such alarming and needless violence.

Author: fortier
Posted: December 6, 2018, 3:00 pm

(Ottawa — 30 November 2018)  Delegates attending the 85th Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT) Council meeting unanimously adopted a motion condemning the Ontario Conservative government for canceling plans for the Université de l’Ontario français without consulting Franco-Ontarians.

In a letter to Premier Doug Ford, CAUT echoes concerns expressed by the Ontario Confederation of University Faculty Associations’ (OCUFA) about plans to cancel the promised French-language University without first consulting Francophone students, parents, and the academic community.

“We ask you and your government to hold, with respect to the linguistic rights of minorities, consultations with all the relevant stakeholders, and most importantly, with the Francophone community of Ontario before making a final decision on the future of a French university in Ontario,” writes CAUT executive director David Robinson.

CAUT is the national voice of 72,000 academic and general staff at 125 universities and colleges across the country.

Author: fortier
Posted: November 30, 2018, 2:49 pm

(Ottawa – 28 November 2018) Delegates at the 85th Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT) Council meeting unanimously passed a motion condemning the use of back-to-work legislation by the federal government to end the stand-off between Canada Post and the Canadian Union of Postal Workers.

In a letter to Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, CAUT executive director David Robinson states that the legislation violates the right to free collective bargaining.

“The government’s interference in this matter means that many of the serious issues in negotiation will be unresolved.”

“The back-to-work legislation disappoints working people across the country and across the sectors who strive to bargain in good faith to address health and safety, equitable treatment, fair wages and working conditions, and exercise their democratic rights,” added Robinson.

CAUT is the national voice of 72,000 academic and general staff at 125 universities and colleges across the country.

Author: dufour
Posted: November 28, 2018, 9:24 pm

(Ottawa – November 24, 2018) An investigation into the controversial resignation of Dr. Andrew Potter from the McGill Institute for the Study of Canada (MISC) has found that not only did the University fail in its duty to protect Professor Potter’s academic freedom, but that its justification for his resignation has undermined the academic freedom of all academic staff at McGill.

The report, prepared for the Academic Freedom and Tenure Committee of the Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT), is calling on the University to develop policy to give full protection of academic freedom to academic administrators.

Professor Potter found himself at the centre of controversy in March, 2017 after writing a blog post for Maclean’s Magazine in which he suggested the response to a snow storm in Montreal was reflective of a “pathologically alienated and low-trust society” in Quebec. He later resigned his position as director of the MISC.

“The central academic freedom issue in this case arose from the McGill administration’s claim that academic administrators do not enjoy the same protections as academics without administrative positions,” says CAUT executive director David Robinson. “It is well understood that universities have as their fundamental commitment the search for knowledge and understanding. This requires an environment free from institutional censorship against any academic.”

The CAUT investigation found no conclusive evidence that the McGill administration put pressure on Professor Potter to resign as Director of MISC, but concluded such pressure would not have been inconsistent with the University’s belief in the conditional academic freedom of academic administrators.

CAUT is the national voice of more than 72,000 academic and general staff at 125 universities and colleges in Canada.

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For more information, please contact:

Lisa Keller, Communications Officer, 613-222-3530 or keller@caut.ca

Author: fortier
Posted: November 24, 2018, 4:30 pm

(Ottawa— 31 October, 2018) The Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT) has established an investigation into the case of Professor Derek Pyne at Thompson Rivers University to determine if his academic freedom was violated.

In April 2017, Professor Pyne published an article exploring the use of so-called “predatory publishers” by faculty members and administrators in the School of Business and Economics at Thompson Rivers. He says he was subsequently targeted by the Administration in violation of his academic freedom.

Professor Pyne has been suspended by the University since July.

Dr. Mark Mac Lean (Mathematics) of the University of British Columbia will chair the investigatory committee. Carla Graebner (Librarian for Data Services and Government Information) of Simon Fraser University will also serve on the committee.

Media contact

Lisa Keller, Communications Officer, Canadian Association of University Teachers; 613-726-5186 (o); 613-222-3530 (c); keller@caut.ca

Author: dufour
Posted: October 31, 2018, 3:14 pm

(Ottawa – October 5, 2018) The Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT) is calling on the federal Liberal government to reassess its approach to the current review of the Copyright Act in light of concessions made in the new United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA).

Article 20.H.7 of the USMCA trade agreement extends the term of copyright protection in Canada by 20 years, from 50 years after the death of the author of a work to 70 years. The change is the result of pressure from the US entertainment industry.

“The provision means that works that would have been freely available to all to be copied, shared, altered and republished will be locked down for another twenty years,” says CAUT executive director David Robinson. “Term extension will cost the education sector and inhibit authors, artists, students, teachers, researchers, and ordinary Canadians in their pursuit of creativity, free expression and learning opportunities.”

Long identified as a giveaway to large corporations at the expense of the public interest, term extension had been resisted by successive Canadian governments. Even the most vocal Canadian proponents for more restrictive copyright law have been reluctant to advocate for it.

“With term extension now imposed as a by-product of an international trade deal, the careful balance in Canadian copyright law has been upended in favour of corporate content owners,” states Robinson. “To correct this, the current review of the Copyright Act should advance expanded user rights within the legislation – including broader fair dealing provisions, stronger educational exceptions, better access to orphan works, and reformed Crown Copyright. The United States has forcefully imposed the interests of its corporations on the Canadian public. Canada must push back.”

Author: fortier
Posted: October 5, 2018, 4:27 pm

(Ottawa – September 4, 2018) Most academic staff working on contract at Canadian universities and colleges aren’t employed that way by choice indicates new survey results gathered and released today by the Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT).

According to the survey:

  • Over half (53%) of respondents want a tenure-track university or full-time, permanent college job. This is the case even for contract academic staff (CAS) who have been teaching for 16-20 years.
  • Only 25% said they do not want a tenure-track or permanent, full-time academic appointment. The remainder are unsure.
  • Women and racialized CAS work more hours per course, per week than their colleagues and are more likely to be in low-income households.
  • Two-thirds of respondents said their mental health has been negatively impacted by the contingent nature of their employment, and just 19% think the institutions where they work are model employers and supporters of good jobs.

“Until now, we had no clear picture of the working conditions of CAS across the country,” said CAUT executive director David Robinson. “These results reveal that many CAS are underpaid, overworked and sorely under-resourced. It’s a dismal picture for the majority of these academics, who often feel trapped in a ‘gig lifestyle’ of part-time or insecure work.”

CAS are a swiftly growing segment in the Canadian academic workforce, with the number of university teachers working part-time, part-year expanding by 79% from 2005 to 2015.  In contrast, regular professors increased by only 14% and in the same period, the number of students grew by 28%.

“Administrators are increasingly — and wrongly — replacing what should be full-time permanent jobs with a patchwork of lower-paid, short-term contracts,” said Robinson. “The growing reliance by administrators on CAS is unfair to CAS and to their students.”

More than 2,600 CAS responded to the online survey, which was open to those teaching at least one course during the 2016-17 academic year in any Canadian post-secondary institution.

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Media contact:

Lisa Keller, Communications Officer, Canadian Association of University Teachers; 613-726-5186 (o); 613-222-3530 (c); keller@caut.ca

Author: fortier
Posted: September 4, 2018, 2:11 pm

(Ottawa – August 31, 2018) The Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT) marks Labour Day 2018 by recognizing the many achievements of the trade union movement, and committing to continuing the fight for improved standards of living for all workers.

CAUT, along with other unions and employee associations, has been instrumental in promoting equity at Canada’s universities and colleges, and remains a vocal advocate for academic freedom and professional rights won through collective representation.

But serious challenges remain, including the growing corporatization of institutions of higher learning,  and an increasing reliance on contract hiring.  

CAUT will continue to push back against these trends and will work to promote the integrity of our universities and colleges, and advance the rights and security of workers on campus.

This Labour Day, we recognize the need for continued solidarity across the labour movement, as we stand against the casualization of academic work, and for the advancement of health and safety standards in all workplaces, and of a fair and equitable society.

Media contact:

Lisa Keller, Communications Officer, Canadian Association of University Teachers; 613-726-5186 (o); 613-222-3530 (c)

Author: dufour
Posted: August 31, 2018, 4:43 pm

(Ottawa – August 31, 2018) The government of Ontario’s plan to require the province’s universities and colleges to adopt “free speech” policies and punish those who fail to adhere to the new requirements is an unprecedented interference with institutional autonomy, warns the Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT).

“CAUT has long advocated that campuses must be sites where there is a free and open exchange of ideas,” says executive director David Robinson. “But universities and colleges should set their own policies, not politicians. Institutional autonomy – including the freedom from government diktat – is itself necessary to protect free expression and academic freedom.”

Robinson adds that the government’s requirements are “a solution in search of a problem”.

“The belief that free expression is being squelched on campuses across the province and across the country is grossly exaggerated and masks a thinly veiled political agenda,” says Robinson.  “The difficult conversations about free speech on campus today are about reconciling unhindered debate with the need to ensure that all voices can be heard without facing discrimination and harassment. This can be a very difficult terrain to navigate, but punitive measures such as those proposed by the Ford government will create a more litigious and polarizing environment, making it more difficult to find solutions.”

The vagueness in the government’s guidelines of what constitutes an interference with free speech is also a problem, and may prohibit legitimate protests.

“Ironically, the requirements may have the effect of actually curtailing free expression on campus,” Robinson suggests.

“The real problems around free speech and academic freedom on campus today are linked to issues such as government de-funding, and the increasing precariousness of academic work,” says Robinson.
“The Ford government could better serve the people by focusing on these real problems, and not chasing after distractions.”

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For  more information, please contact:

Valérie Dufour, Director of Communications, 613-293-1810 or dufour@caut.ca

Author: dufour
Posted: August 31, 2018, 4:21 pm

(Ottawa — June 21, 2018) On this National Indigenous Peoples Day, the Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT) takes the opportunity to reflect upon the enormous contributions of Aboriginal Peoples, and also the historic wrongs committed against First Nations, Inuit, and Métis communities in Canada.

Many recommendations from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission still need to be implemented and we press all levels of governments to act. As the report points out, education policy can play a critical role in supporting the reconciliation process, but to do so we need to invest and be invested in the reconciliation process.

In the last federal budget, the federal government announced small amounts of funding for the post-secondary education (PSE) sector to develop a national framework to address gender-based violence at post-secondary institutions and to support Métis students to attend PSE. As well, additional funding was announced to enable Aboriginal representatives to participate in international discussions on rights to traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions, something CAUT has encouraged through its efforts on copyright.

This is a start, but it is not enough. Indigenous rights, including the right to education, are inherent rights enshrined in treaties, the Canadian Constitution, and international agreements. CAUT is committed to restoring, renewing, and regenerating Indigenous practices, languages, and knowledge.

CAUT also urges academic staff associations, universities and colleges to support the Indigenization of the academy by working together to establish equitable policies and practices that involve Aboriginal Peoples and Indigenous knowledge in all aspects of campus life.

Author: fortier
Posted: June 21, 2018, 2:30 pm

(Ottawa – June 15, 2018) The Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT) is welcoming the ruling of the Supreme Court of Canada (SCC) against Trinity Western University (TWU) in its bid for accreditation of its evangelical Christian law school.

TWU had applied for accreditation from the law societies in British Columbia and Ontario, both of which refused recognition to the school because of its requirement that students and faculty adhere to a religiously-based code of conduct prohibiting “sexual intimacy that violated the sacredness of marriage between a man and a woman.” The cases wound their way up through appeals to the SCC, which ruled today that the twin rejections of TWU’s law school will stand.

CAUT intervened in the appeals and argued before the SCC that the school’s requirement that academic staff commit to a statement of faith as a condition of employment violates academic freedom, and inhibits the promotion and protection of diversity that must be expected in legal education at a Canadian law school.

“The majority of the Supreme Court accepted that there is a link between legal education and equality, diversity, and the competence of the legal profession,” said CAUT executive director David Robinson. “This case underlines that it is vital that faculty and students not be constrained by any dogma or proscribed doctrine in any form, as this is the basis for promoting and protecting academic freedom.”

The complex cases involved the apparent clash of freedom of religion and equality rights entrenched in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and have repeatedly been described as the most controversial in a generation.

To read our factum, click here.

 To read our Bulletin story about the appeals, click here.

Media contact:

Lisa Keller, Communications Officer, Canadian Association of University Teachers
(o) 613-726-5186 (c) 613-222-3530
keller@caut.ca

Author: fortier
Posted: June 15, 2018, 7:01 pm

(Ottawa – May 23, 2018) The Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT) has written to Durham College president Don Lovisa urging him to rescind a new school policy purporting to ban political activity by any staff.

The letter points out that a ban on political activity by staff — both on and off campus — places unjustifiable restrictions on the political activity of staff and represents a serious violation of academic freedom and basic democratic rights.

“Academic freedom means academic staff have the right to engage in political activity, and to express support for or opposition to a political party both inside and outside of campus. Universities and colleges are places where debates on matters of public concern must be encouraged, not stifled,” the letter states.

Lovisa has attempted to justify the ban by suggesting it is required by the 2006 Public Service of Ontario Act. However, as pointed out in CAUT’s letter, that Act does not apply because colleges aren’t considered “public bodies” or “crown agencies” as defined in the Act, and nor are college staff classified as “public servants.”

CAUT has referred the matter to its Academic Freedom and Tenure Committee for further consideration and action.

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Media contact:

Lisa Keller, Communications Officer, Canadian Association of University Teachers
(o) 613-726-5186 (c) 613-222-3530
keller@caut.ca

Author: fortier
Posted: May 23, 2018, 3:58 pm

Photo credit: Paul Jones

(Ottawa – May 3, 2018) The Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT) is calling on the Federal Government to establish  an independent and public inquiry into the treatment of Professor Hassan Diab.

Following accusations by the French government that he was involved in a terrorist bombing in Paris in 1980, Professor Diab, a dual Canadian-Lebanese citizen, was extradited to France where he spent more than three years in solitary confinement. Recently, information has surfaced that reveals Canadian officials may have withheld evidence that would have exonerated Professor Diab of any wrongdoing.

 “Dr. Diab, his family, and all Canadians deserve to know why and how the Government of Canada allowed and enabled the suffering and the jailing of one of its citizens in a foreign prison for 1,156 days without proper evidence. I urge you to act on this matter immediately,” the letter states.  “We ask that an independent and public inquiry look at the actions of Canadian officials and review Canada’s extradition agreements in order to raise the burden of proof required in such cases.”

Author: dufour
Posted: May 3, 2018, 8:40 pm

(Ottawa – April 26, 2018) On April 28, the Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT) will join with unions and employee associations across the country to mark the National Day of Mourning in recognition of workers killed or injured on the job.

Family and friends of people who’ve died or been hurt at work will take the day to remember and recognize the sacrifices of their loved ones. This year, the focus of this solemn day has widened to include condemnation of violence and harassment in the workplace.

CAUT commends the federal government for addressing workplace violence through tough regulations, as well as developing Bill C-65 which promises to deal with sexual harassment as a workplace hazard.

However, more remains to be done before we can call our workplaces safe. That is why CAUT adds its voice with other unions to urge further measures:

  • Put in place whistleblower protection for those reporting harassment and violence on the job;
  • Hire more federal health and safety officers and train them properly;
  • Recognize domestic violence as a workplace hazard in order to raise awareness around the need for workplace risk assessments, training and safety planning.

As well, CAUT urges workers to speak out and seek support if they are victims. In 2018, we need to break the silence that has protected perpetrators of workplace violence and harassment for far too long.

Media contact:
Lisa Keller, Communications Officer, CAUT
(o) 613-726-5186; (c) 613-222-3530; keller@caut.ca

 

 

 

Author: fortier
Posted: April 26, 2018, 1:31 pm

(Ottawa – April 23, 2018) The Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT) and the Canadian Federation of Students (CFS) have been granted leave to intervene in the York University v.The Canadian Copyright Licensing Agency ("Access Copyright") case.

The decision by the Federal Court of Appeal allows CAUT to make written and oral arguments in a case that holds important implications for the way students, teachers, librarians and researchers use and share copyrighted material.

“This is a real victory,” says CAUT Executive Director David Robinson. “The initial decision represented a significant setback for the education sector, and was not in keeping with other recent Supreme Court of Canada (SCC) jurisprudence. We look forward to making the case for fair dealing at the Court of Appeal.”

The case was first heard at the Federal Court’s trial division level, where Judge Michael Phelan adopted a strict interpretation of fair dealing and ruled against the university’s copyright practices.

If upheld, that decision would sharply limit the exchange of information within the university and college sector by forcing users to seek permission, and pay substantial amounts of money for uses the SCC has said should be free.

Author: bourne
Posted: April 23, 2018, 8:19 pm
International Solidarity

(Ottawa — April 9, 2018) The Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT) has written to Iran’s leader protesting the death in prison of an Iranian-Canadian university professor who was accused of spying by Iranian authorities.

Kavous Seyed Emami, a duel-Canadian national, was arrested in January, and died last month in a Tehran prison, ostensibly by his own hand. He taught sociology and was also a prominent environmentalist who ran the Persian Wildlife Heritage Foundation.

CAUT’s letter, addressed to Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, also protests the fact that Emani’s wife, Maryam Mombeini, a Canadian citizen, is now barred from leaving Iran to return to her children here.

“I urge you to allow Ms. Mombeini to join her family in this moment of grief. I fail to understand why Ms. Mombeini, a Canadian citizen, was barred from leaving Iran in the first place, and urge you to permit her the freedom to return to Canada,” the letter states.

Emani’s family does not believe he took his own life, and activists point to other suspicious deaths among detainees that have also been called suicides by Iranian authorities.

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Author: dufour
Posted: April 9, 2018, 8:49 pm

(Ottawa – April 6, 2018) A new report from the Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT) reveals that the academic workforce is not as diverse as either the student body it serves, or the general labour force, and that wage gaps remain entrenched between men and women; and between white, Indigenous and racialized academic staff.

The report compares the number of women, racialized and   Aboriginal teachers working in Canada’s universities and colleges, and their type of employment and average earnings, drawing from census data.  The analysis shows persistent diversity and equity challenges.

 “These findings are discouraging because universities and colleges have talked often and publicly about committing to equity and diversity, but the fact remains that real progress is terribly slow in coming,” says CAUT Equity Committee Co-Chair Pat Armstrong.

The CAUT report — Underrepresented and Underpaid: diversity and equity among Canada’s post-secondary education teachers — concludes that:

  • Wage gaps exist between men and women and worsen for racialized and Aboriginal university and college teachers.  The wage gap is deepest for racialized women professors who earn on average 68 cents for every dollar earned by their white male colleagues;
  • Racialized, Aboriginal and women teachers are less-likely to have full-time, full-year employment;
  • Racialized post-secondary teachers have the highest rates of unemployment; and
  • The number of assistant professor positions has declined considerably which will slow progress as women, racialized and Aboriginal academics are unable to secure tenure-track positions.

“The data is revealing but comes as no surprise, especially to those who face inequality every day. Renewed commitments to equity from institutions and governments must be met with new approaches,” Armstrong argues. “We can and must do better to address discrimination in employment at Canada’s universities and colleges.”

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Media contact:

Lisa Keller, Communications Officer, Canadian Association of University Teachers
(o) 613-726-5186 (c) 613-222-3530

Author: dufour
Posted: April 6, 2018, 12:54 pm

(Ottawa – March 20, 2018) The Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT) is launching an inquiry into the case of Professor Rick Mehta at Acadia University.

The university is currently investigating Professor Mehta for his classroom and social media conduct, including allegations that he has used his lectures to discuss his political views and has expressed opinions on-line that are claimed to be offensive and derogatory.  

“Professor Mehta’s case raises important questions about the scope of academic freedom in teaching and the exercise of extramural speech by professors,” says CAUT Executive Director David Robinson. “These issues are of broad significance to all academics in Canada.” 

CAUT has appointed an Ad Hoc Investigatory Committee to review how the University is handling  complaints against Professor Mehta, determine whether  his academic freedom has been breached or threatened, and make any appropriate recommendations.

Members of the Committee are Penni Stewart, Associate Professor at York University, and Francesca Holyoke, Head of Archives and Special Collections at the University of New Brunswick.

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Media contact:

Lisa Keller, Communications Officer, Canadian Association of University Teachers
(o) 613-726-5186 (c) 613-222-3530

Author: bourne
Posted: March 20, 2018, 6:41 pm

(Ottawa — March 8, 2018) In the days and weeks since the not-guilty verdicts in the murders of Colten Boushie and Tina LaFontaine, public attention has been drawn to the legacy of racism and colonialism within Canada and the challenges of seeking justice. These two recent cases need to be seen in the light of a justice system in which a disproportionate number of Indigenous men and women are represented in Canadian prisons, of the inter-generational trauma resulting from the residential school system, and the continuing legacy of racism and discrimination directed towards Indigenous peoples.

The Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT) has been made aware of incidents in which Aboriginal academics and their allies who have spoken out in the wake of the court decisions have been subjected to expressions of hate. There can be no justice and no reconciliation unless we acknowledge the truth of our history, the wrongs committed against First Nations, Inuit, and Métis communities in Canada, take steps to address the legacy of colonialism in the justice and education systems, and ensure that the experiences, voices, cultures, and knowledges of Indigenous peoples are recognized, affirmed and welcomed.

CAUT urges the Canadian Government to follow through on the Calls to Action as recommended by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s final report. CAUT is committed, and encourages all of its members, to work with Indigenous colleagues and communities to challenge racism, discrimination and colonialism wherever it takes root. Justice requires that we all do our part.

Author: fortier
Posted: March 8, 2018, 8:39 pm

(Ottawa — March 8, 2018) The Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT) marks International Women’s Day 2018 by celebrating recent strides made towards gender equity in Canada, and urging continued action against remaining barriers.

Last year, the federal government put in place hard targets for the Canada Research Chairs (CRC) program, requiring universities to address the underrepresentation of women, persons with disabilities, Aboriginal Peoples and racialized people within the CRC program or lose funding

Additionally, Budget 2018 outlines major new initiatives that will help increase equity in the research community, including $15 million to implement programs that support improved equity and diversity in academia at post-secondary institutions and $6.7 million for Statistics Canada to create a new Center for Gender, Diversity and Inclusion Statistics, which will help monitor progress.

While we celebrate these achievements, more can and must be done.

Some 20 years ago, Canada was first on the United Nation’s Gender Inequality Index, yet today, we are ranked 18th, and the World Economic Forum’s most recent Global Gender Gap Report places us 16th.

There remains much work before true gender equality is achieved. CAUT maintains its call for the significant investment in a national child care program, and strengthening of the employment equity program in order to address inequality in the workplace, including in post-secondary institutions where women are underrepresented in senior positions and overrepresented in precarious contract positions.

Author: keller
Posted: March 8, 2018, 2:30 pm